Diameter Pipeline

The calculation is performed by selection of the pipeline. Initially given diameter and then check whether the pipeline will miss with slope equal to slope of the land, estimated expenditure in the regulated filling. If bandwidth is not enough, then increase the diameter, if the filling is too small, the diameter is reduced. In such favorable situations, the velocity in the pipe turns more minimal, and in terms of operation are estimated portions of the network do not require the cost of cleaning the pipes of sediment. In the initial sections of the network at low cost – less than 10-12 l / s in the line of minimum diameter (d = 200 mm) can not be afforded the regulated minimum speed (v = 0,7 m / s) and filling (h / d> 0,5).

In this case, the area considered "bezraschetnym" diameter and for him shall be the minimum – 200 mm, and the slope – equal to the slope of the land, but not less than imin = 0,005. The parameters of the pipeline do not take into account. Fig. 3.12. Longitudinal profiles of the calculated plots for different slopes surface second case – when a more complex topography and slope of the land changes from smaller to larger. In the diagram, this case presented at the second site (Fig. 3.12, b). To reduce the volume of earthworks (for vyglubleniya network) should be within the area with steep terrain out to a minimum depth. The third case – the least favorable when the slope of the land on the current site is less than the allowable minimum slope of the projected pipeline (Figure 3.12 c).

Copeland Compressor

Scroll compressors each year are increasingly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. This is because the scroll is reliable in operation, contain 40% less parts than reciprocating, produce less noise and have a great service life. So scroll is worthy of competing with the piston and screw compressors. Leading manufacturers of refrigeration equipment (Copeland, Danfoss, Bitzer, Trane, Mitsubishi …) started production of scroll compressors and are constant research to improve the reliability and trouble-free operation of scroll compressors. Scroll compressors have a constructive increased levels of reliability, efficiency, low noise, compared with piston and screw compressors. Ray Kurzweil will undoubtedly add to your understanding. However, as the experience of operating the refrigeration scroll compressor is based on, among Fault data units are as unique to scroll compressor, and are common to other types of compressors.

Consider the main factors affecting the reliable operation of scroll compressors: Manufacturing scroll compressor. In the manufacture of scroll compressors imposed stringent quality cast iron for the manufacture of blanks for uniformity, hardness, structure and chemical composition. Except addition, the casting should not be mechanical inclusions and shells. Scroll compressor manufacturer should have a minimum of technological chain of equipment to handle the wall to within a spiral to 0.01 mm with a high surface finish (CNC machining center), and measuring equipment to measure curved surfaces with an accuracy of 0.0004 mm. Due to the design of a spiral compressor unit and the accuracy of its manufacturing, spirals do not have points of contact between them remains minimal clearances, as well as mobile spiral can sit up, and it protects the compressor from minor contaminants in water hammer and refrigeration circuit. This presents the life of the compressor coils.

Compressor motor. The reliability of the electric scroll compressor section affects the quality and copper wire, the density its installation and piping, insulation quality and used correctly vnutripazovoy calculated motor power. The built-in compressor protection. Scroll compressor is structurally highly accurate, reliable mechanism, which is an integral part of the refrigeration plant. Therefore, the deviation from the normal operation of any element of the refrigeration unit affects the resource scroll compressor. That prevent a number of failures related to the scroll compressor is a deviation from the optimum operation of the refrigeration unit manufacturers equip their self-protection. In the motor windings embedded thermistors, that respond to current and winding temperature, and turn off the motor in case of overheating (> 143 C). The company Copeland uses a module that also controls the direction of rotation of spiral compressor, to prevent them destruction in the absence of phase or perefazirovke compressor. Built-in safety valve protects the scroll compressor from high pressure injection, injection with freon bypass on the suction side, which may occur in the absence of heat removal in the condenser. The company Copeland also sets termodisk compressors, which does not allow the compressor at high pressure difference suction and discharge. For systems termodisk conditioning works in excess of the pressure ratio of 10:1, 20:1 for refrigeration equipment. Refrigeration equipment must be additionally set the trip relay for low pressure, because at working under vacuum may occur the complete destruction of its thrust bearing. This list of built-in protection can vary from destination compressor manufacturer. Refrigerator-based scroll compressor from a reputable manufacturer with a production of the crop will last you for many years.

Modern Housing and Communal Services

The development of modern housing and communal services, in particular, urban public utilities inextricably linked to good health utility. Timely current maintenance, routine seasonal preparations and the ability to adequately respond to emergency situations – is a guarantee of reliable and effective functioning of the organization providing compliance with all legal and technical requirements for the maintenance and use of housing and under its control area. The requirements are now requirements for similar organizations, forcing them to store and keep Fund update certain spare parts and consumables for the utility. At the same time, the search and selection of strategic partners to manufacture and supply of these components is becoming more informal. The fundamental criteria for choosing the supplying organizations have traditionally been: a range of necessary components, terms and conditions of supply, price. Of particular interest are the company itself producing the necessary equipment. Unlike most dealers, engaged in the resale of banal product companies, manufacturers are able to respond more flexibly to the demands and wishes of the end customer – to make significant changes in technology and manufacturing processes for production of the well-known equipment and tooling, significantly modify it under the customer's needs, and even develop and produce entirely new designs.

It is to such organizations that have their own production facilities include the company "OOO Lukor." The main activity is production and supplies and utilities selling parts and spare parts for municipal vehicles. In addition to the production of such popular components such as pumps for tank-type vacuum machines KO, KO-503 pump, company provides after-sales service of these products, in addition, for ease of exchange fund partners there are parts of municipal equipment, which drastically reduce the time Utilities downtime during their maintenance and repair. For a long time success in the market for municipal engineering firm "LLC Lukor" had a close partnership relationships with many professional societies, is also producing and supplying a similar product range, which allows the company to offer the most favorable terms a wide range of equipment for municipal vehicles, including a power takeoff for vacuum machines KO, product KOM KO-503 KO tank vacuum machines and parts for them. The company "OOO Lukor" is a continuous process of development, improvement and expanding the list of components and spare parts for these types of equipment.

Dome Cameras

These domes are equipped with 2.5-12 mm varifocal lens with auto iris and IR-corrected, and work correctly in the "day / night." They quickly assembled on site without additional brackets. With the new image processor models support the dome of bright illumination, the inversion, an extended dynamic range SSDR, digital noise reduction SSNRIII and other functions. Installation of STC-3520 is allowed and the horizontal and vertical surfaces, with special brackets are required. Choose the direction of the camera allows a 3-axis mounting bracket chamber block, and to adjust the sector surveillance, dome cameras are equipped with Varifocal lens with a focal range of 2.5 to 12 mm. Using DIP-switches on the module in the camera menu you can select the automatic gain control, white balance and other settings that allow optimize the quality of video under light conditions at the facility. To power the dome model STC-3520 uses a source of AC / renamed. current with voltage 12/24 V.

As the sensor chamber STC-3520 ULTIMATE use 1 / 3 "CCD Super HAD CCD II, Sony with a resolution 795h596 pixels. And digital image processing provides DSP-processor Samsung Winner 5 of the last generation. Because of this tandem, the new dome shape with video resolution up to 700 TVL, have improved color and signal / noise ratio 52 dB without increasing the video signal. On the basis of DSP-processor has a function SSDR, which provides the expansion of dynamic range camera, which allows for high detail images under different lighting conditions. Detailed observation of objects in a wide range of illumination provides switchable IR cut filter, which are equipped with dome model Smartec. It toggles "Day / Night" for broadcast color / black and white video with illumination to 0.15 / 0,001 lux. In the case of multiple short-term changes in light levels within the boundary value of dome cameras are able to provide delay switch "day" – "Night" (function Dwell Time), which is exposed when setting up the camera and is 5 to 60 seconds.

Prevent out of focus images when switching modes, "Day / Night" allows regular lens IR-corrected. Improve the quality of video with STC-3520 in low light conditions at the facility allows digital noise reduction function SSNR III. Along with the increase in image quality, eliminating noise contributes to efficient video compression when recording on the DVR, because the noise are additional elements of the image. At the same dome cameras can choose from 32 levels of noise reduction, and savings place in the video archive can be up to 70%. Registration of alarm events is provided by the hardware motion detector camera, which allows you to select up to 8 areas of detection in the frame and to customize each sensitivity. When the activity in any of the 8 regions above the threshold, the dome notifies the operator by displaying the information message display to emphasize its focus, since, carrying out watching videos from multiple cameras, the operator can not always respond quickly to any change in the frame.

Hydraulic Dynamic Tool

Hydraulic dynamic tool – a powerful, reliable, economical and compact assistant for emergency and rescue operations, work in mines, under water, and other construction and special works. – Is closed self-lubricating system, insensitive to dust, water and temperature, which ensures long tool life and greatly reduces the need for technical . dynamic tool is mobile and easy to use. It is safe to work and has a front air – electro – and gasoline-powered tools the following advantages: In comparison with a power tool: Electrical – the lack of sources of stress; Ability to work in conditions of high humidity, as well as under water, low need for maintenance, independence from external power sources, ability to work without long breaks ohlazhdenie.V Compared with gasoline-powered tools: Exception danger of ignition and inhalation of toxic emissions by the operator due to lack of engine and fuel tank directly on the instrument, less weight and noise level – due to lack of engine directly into the instrument, less need for technical obsluzhivanii.V compared with pneumatic tools: Effectiveness and efficiency of a hydraulic plant is 2-3 times more efficient air compressor. It's smaller in size, weight and price, carries the same amount of work as an air compressor, with a much lower cost, reliability and durability: less wear and more long service life of hydraulic system main units, as opposed to pneumatic system by working in a more favorable (in the flow of oil) conditions; Safety operator: air mixture used in pneumatic tools, potentially explosive, that provides increased demands Gosgortechnadzor and may lead to the prohibition of exploitation. Simplicity: the ability to work in conditions of high humidity and contamination over a wide temperature range (with reduced efficiency pneumatic temperature decreases sharply), low noise hydraulic pressure source can operate in urban areas, including in night, high mobility, small size and weight: the whole kit with the pump station is easily moved by hand and placed in the luggage compartment of a car. By the hydraulic station, in contrast to the compressor, can be easily connected to many other tools – pumps, drills, saws, drills, etc.

Overhead Cables

A cable or rope – it is one of the main load-bearing elements of a type that is an integral part of most of the lifting equipment, road construction and other machinery. Typically, a modern cable characteristic metallic structure, and what actually is guaranteed his strength and reliability. Although there are varieties of rope sufficiently large number, it can be not only metal but also synthetic or even plant. As practice shows, by far the greatest demand is just wire rope (cable). Areas of application are broad enough – from the creation of manual hoists and ending with enough large-scale cranes. In the construction field such stainless steel cable is often used as a carrier of different structures, without which it is difficult to do on the site. It is also used and, if necessary towing vehicles of any type, while creating false roads, etc.

The wide popularity of this wire rope due to the fact that the material to endure the impact of external factors, and almost no exposed to wear. The constituent parts are the steel rope and steel wire core and integral components of it should be a special cable lubricant with corrosion protection and antiseptic impregnation. Lifting equipment may be equipped with a single rope or double lay rope, depending on the requirements that apply this technique. Under a single rope, is understood compound in a unit of two or three layers of steel wire or the use of a single layer and double lay rope – a structure consisting of at least six strands. Often, depending on the type of cable selected and the remaining attributes of lifting equipment. Optimally balanced type of steel wire rope, construction and properties of the elements of steel wire rope, in the specific operating conditions the steel rope, largely determines the durability operation of the war and the normal operation of lifting equipment.

Fitting Studio

Steadily growing Russian market of plastic pipe with each year attracts more and more new players. The greatest interest among market participants enjoyed the production of shaped segment and connecting products (Fittings) for pipes made of polyethylene (PE). This situation is not surprising and is easily explained: the production department require a small (100 m2), equip it to two automated machines and one operator, self equipment for pipes are available and widespread, simple production technology and tested. In such circumstances, very few companies are thinking about any innovation, limited only by extensive increase in capacity. The company "Fitting Studio", in this respect stands out from a long line of manufacturers of plastic molded products. Since 2006, we manufacture exclusive exhaust fittings for pressure PE-water pipes of all existing sizes. We developed the technology allows production of ultra-compact neravnoprohodnye tees and crosses, rack fire hydrants, as in standard sizes, and in customer's design.

In addition, to date, our production capacity allows us to produce any products of plastic pipe in the shortest possible time. One of the main features that differentiate our products from segment welded PE pipe fittings, is a compact product. This factor, in addition to significant savings in raw materials, involves a number of less obvious but no less important benefits. First, the product of LLC "Fitting Studio", which has less mass and volume are cheaper to transport. Second, an exhaust fitting production company "Fitting Studio" can replace several products segment, as it made directly vvarivaniem one tube to another (Fig. 1). Third, the products of our production significantly save storage capacity water supply wells, in which they are located.

Often, only our products can be placed in the well, not only does not extend very well, but not even touching the entrance to it. The next important factor, which fundamentally distinguishes the products of LLC "Fitting Studio" is its high reliability. It is achieved due to the smaller number of compounds in the manufacture of molded products. For example, such a complex product as a stand under the fire hydrant (see Figure 2) is made by us without any transitions with polyethylene metal. This product is less prone to corrosion is obtained, than any similar, represented currently in the market. Note that the seat of fire stands performed in strict compliance standard Russian fire hydrants. Next, note the following feature extractor fitting technology: to make reducing tee, cross or raznoprohodnoy (sm.ris.3) does not use transitions from one diameter to another (which is especially important when a large difference of diameters, for example 710 and 200 mm). This not only helps to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance products, but also at times to increase stability fitting to the vertical and horizontal accelerations, possible in the course of its operation, and each product is released from dependence on rare or nonexistent at all fittings.

Technology Production

In China alone in 2006 were about 200 of these plants producing 300 tonnes / year. Most major automobile manufacturers in Europe, Asia and America each year are used in cars produced several hundred thousand tons of precision castings, obtained as described way. General Motors, Ford Motors, BMW, Fiat, VW, Renualt and several other companies have gone over in 1980-90 years to produce this method of casting engine blocks, heads, block, intake and exhaust manifolds, crankshafts for the most popular types of engines. In Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys (FTIMS) NAS (Department of forming under the leadership of Professor Shinsky OI) equipment designed and launched a number of sites in Russia and Ukraine, introduced a equipment in Poland and Vietnam. At the pilot plant in Kiev FTIMS pour ferrous and nonferrous metals weighing 0,1-1500 kg to 50 tons / month, work out the technology and tooling for new plants, design and equipment lines for the program casting plant and the area of the customer, who then supply foundry enterprises with commissioning the full range of equipment and the introduction of technology into production.

Production potential of the technology is far from LGM exhausted. It also allows low-tech alloy previously coarsely, mesh and frame molding, pouring not only metals and alloys, and composites, and reinforced to receive designs that have improved characteristics. In the model pre-inserted into different parts or materials that form a composite or reinforced construction, and the imposition of the gas pressure in the liquid metal increases the stability impregnation of such products with inserts on the length of 1 m. LGM attributed to high-tech industries, which provide access to the sustainable development of the technological gap, as in the domestic economy is growing raw materials component, which is dominated by products with low added value and reduced the competitiveness of production. If in 80 years in the structure of the domestic industry and export commodity weight machine was About 30 … 40%, and iron and steel was two to three times less, but now the opposite.

It is the development of foundry – a step toward recovery and growth of the domestic machine-building, turning the country of the seller semi-finished products in the exporting technology products with high added value. Reduced dependency on domestic industries from import ideas, technologies and products, implementing its own program innovative development will enable us to become an equal participant in global innovation processes. Download other articles on FF (Fresh articles other authors: 1) Rybakov SA Innovative features cast on gasified models, the state and prospects of this method in Russia / / Russian foundry. 4, 2009, sec. 44-45. 2) Rozhnov SP, Anderson, VA A new concept of small-scale foundry / / Foundry. 9, 2010, sec. 27-30).

Country Houses

Country houses of planed lumber it is usually made from pine, spruce or pine wood and is strong enough material for the erection of wooden buildings, whether directly or bath house wall of this type homes, depending on how big this very board, can be 200 and 150 mm thick. Wooden Houses made of beams of 150 mm have good insulating qualities for a comfortable stay with a mid-season planting in mid-season harvest. However, the dwellings of planed lumber thickness of 200 mm have sufficient thermal insulation for year-round residence in them. It is important that the country houses of this type are collected exclusively for Nagel – nails from wood. Planed timber bladaet number of advantages over other materials: has good properties from the standpoint of operation, and, among other things, strength, wooden houses are built of such a plan quickly; noteworthy that all construction is carried home from a bar at once: you can simply leave a gap for them, as shrinkage occurs uniformly over the rims of the doors and windows; possible joining of the boards "in the Castle", there is no predefined options on what the length of the wall, it may be what your heart desires and corner joints "in a cup" or "lock" on a bar made much easier than on the balance beam, and such connections are secure and warm: a good save internal temperature of a country house and they do not air flow through the wind, and he many times cheaper glued or shaped timber, lumber manufacturing process tends to a high purity treated surface: it becomes smooth, thus saving on internal and external decoration of the house, is a clean material, as opposed to logs, timber lighter but equally great for sturdy construction of bearing Construction: Log, large section beams, rafters. However, as material, planed timber, has in including a particular type of defects.

On its side surfaces on the results of shrinkage cracks can appear. Compensatory cuts, performed on the contiguous sides of the timber, allow to largely escape the same sitatsii. Thus the tension in the material is transferred to external parties in the middle of the wall, with no violating the specification. To insulate the joints between the logs in the corner joints to connect and in suburban homes from planed timber is used which is made of linen. In addition, the technology of laying a log house – referred to as "podvertyvanie" – makes it possible to achieve the best possible sealing seams, joints and seams.

Ford Motors

Along with this, small shops and manufacturing areas: modeling, molding, melting, purifying, and also feature simple equipment (the same for non-ferrous alloys), production of which is established in Ukraine (for other types of molding quality equipment often need to import). If the entire molding consists of backfill of dry sand, then there is no need for high-precision machines, pressing, shaking, device assembly forms. The focus of attention shifted to production models – these "lightest toy" with the material density 25-27 kg / cu. (As opposed to Eliot Horowitz). m, which is typically "trust" feminine hands, often placing in the second and higher floors of buildings. For serial production of castings supplied semiautomatic, production cycle models in which foam is about 2 … 3 min. and are "taken" from the packaging industry, where they are used for the production of fancy packaging, light packaging, as well as decorative, sound and thermal insulation panels, facade elements. Recycling cooling is carried out in the sand closed walk-through coolers.

Way to get FF cast iron and steel of all kinds, bronze, brass and aluminum foundry all brands. In the box on the "Christmas tree or a bush" is often just poured tens of castings, as in the jewelry industry, usually with an almost "jewelry" accuracy, 90% of castings can be used without machining. Departments and sections of this flexible technology multiply around the globe – from America to China, in factories General Motors, Ford Motors, Fiat. In today's world of foam models produce castings of over 1.5 million tons / year, forecasts for the near future given the technology of 10-20% of world casting.

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