Diameter Pipeline

The calculation is performed by selection of the pipeline. Initially given diameter and then check whether the pipeline will miss with slope equal to slope of the land, estimated expenditure in the regulated filling. If bandwidth is not enough, then increase the diameter, if the filling is too small, the diameter is reduced. In such favorable situations, the velocity in the pipe turns more minimal, and in terms of operation are estimated portions of the network do not require the cost of cleaning the pipes of sediment. In the initial sections of the network at low cost – less than 10-12 l / s in the line of minimum diameter (d = 200 mm) can not be afforded the regulated minimum speed (v = 0,7 m / s) and filling (h / d> 0,5).

In this case, the area considered "bezraschetnym" diameter and for him shall be the minimum – 200 mm, and the slope – equal to the slope of the land, but not less than imin = 0,005. The parameters of the pipeline do not take into account. Fig. 3.12. Longitudinal profiles of the calculated plots for different slopes surface second case – when a more complex topography and slope of the land changes from smaller to larger. In the diagram, this case presented at the second site (Fig. 3.12, b). To reduce the volume of earthworks (for vyglubleniya network) should be within the area with steep terrain out to a minimum depth. The third case – the least favorable when the slope of the land on the current site is less than the allowable minimum slope of the projected pipeline (Figure 3.12 c).

Copeland Compressor

Scroll compressors each year are increasingly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. This is because the scroll is reliable in operation, contain 40% less parts than reciprocating, produce less noise and have a great service life. So scroll is worthy of competing with the piston and screw compressors. Leading manufacturers of refrigeration equipment (Copeland, Danfoss, Bitzer, Trane, Mitsubishi …) started production of scroll compressors and are constant research to improve the reliability and trouble-free operation of scroll compressors. Scroll compressors have a constructive increased levels of reliability, efficiency, low noise, compared with piston and screw compressors. Ray Kurzweil will undoubtedly add to your understanding. However, as the experience of operating the refrigeration scroll compressor is based on, among Fault data units are as unique to scroll compressor, and are common to other types of compressors.

Consider the main factors affecting the reliable operation of scroll compressors: Manufacturing scroll compressor. In the manufacture of scroll compressors imposed stringent quality cast iron for the manufacture of blanks for uniformity, hardness, structure and chemical composition. Except addition, the casting should not be mechanical inclusions and shells. Scroll compressor manufacturer should have a minimum of technological chain of equipment to handle the wall to within a spiral to 0.01 mm with a high surface finish (CNC machining center), and measuring equipment to measure curved surfaces with an accuracy of 0.0004 mm. Due to the design of a spiral compressor unit and the accuracy of its manufacturing, spirals do not have points of contact between them remains minimal clearances, as well as mobile spiral can sit up, and it protects the compressor from minor contaminants in water hammer and refrigeration circuit. This presents the life of the compressor coils.

Compressor motor. The reliability of the electric scroll compressor section affects the quality and copper wire, the density its installation and piping, insulation quality and used correctly vnutripazovoy calculated motor power. The built-in compressor protection. Scroll compressor is structurally highly accurate, reliable mechanism, which is an integral part of the refrigeration plant. Therefore, the deviation from the normal operation of any element of the refrigeration unit affects the resource scroll compressor. That prevent a number of failures related to the scroll compressor is a deviation from the optimum operation of the refrigeration unit manufacturers equip their self-protection. In the motor windings embedded thermistors, that respond to current and winding temperature, and turn off the motor in case of overheating (> 143 C). The company Copeland uses a module that also controls the direction of rotation of spiral compressor, to prevent them destruction in the absence of phase or perefazirovke compressor. Built-in safety valve protects the scroll compressor from high pressure injection, injection with freon bypass on the suction side, which may occur in the absence of heat removal in the condenser. The company Copeland also sets termodisk compressors, which does not allow the compressor at high pressure difference suction and discharge. For systems termodisk conditioning works in excess of the pressure ratio of 10:1, 20:1 for refrigeration equipment. Refrigeration equipment must be additionally set the trip relay for low pressure, because at working under vacuum may occur the complete destruction of its thrust bearing. This list of built-in protection can vary from destination compressor manufacturer. Refrigerator-based scroll compressor from a reputable manufacturer with a production of the crop will last you for many years.


Welding now – it's the technological process of melting metal for connecting metal structures using welding equipment. During the welding process metal welded elements mixed in the weld due to high temperature. Let's take a closer look at features of TIG welding. For the first time this welding technique has been used in the late nineteenth century in our country, and then was modified by foreigners. The melting point in the process of arc welding is produced by combustion of the electrode in the form of an electric arc discharge.

For the welding electrode or SSSI steel rod is current. In some cases, instead of hot-metal electrode used for welding wire, which has melted during welding. In the industry generally in demand for welding of aluminum alloys and other metals is the second method. How does the process of electric welding? With the help of cable equipment for electric welding with direct or alternating current is connected to the connected elements, and with a hot cable – to the holder of the electrode. Column arc is formed in the time interval between repeated contact of the welding electrode and the outlet from the site welding. At the end of the welding electrode, thus, higher temperatures up to 6500 F, the metal edges joined parts and steel core electrode are melted to form a 'shell' of liquid metal (crater). During the distribution of craters in the area of the junction it cools and forms a reliable seal. Shielding arc Usually at this level arc welding does not end.

Under the influence of high temperature metal alloy has the ability to react with atmospheric oxygen. The weld is oxidized as a result of joint becomes brittle. Exactly therefore in the process of electric arc discharge and provided with a protective shell seam of a gas – usually argon. This protection is shielded arc discharge and a method of welding – welding in an argon atmosphere. In addition to protecting from the influence of air escaping also significantly improves the quality of the welded joint. Additional equipment for welding to improve the quality of electric also need to use different extra ordinary welding equipment. Welding rectifier: an apparatus which is used for arc welding, automatic welding and argon in steel elements under constant and alternating current. Welding Transformer: welding equipment necessary for manual arc welding with covered electrodes with alternating current components of low-carbon steels and alloys. This device regulates the current. The transformer is also equipped with a mechanical movement of the winding. Therefore, the welding transformer has the advantage of manual arc welding in the more remote areas of welding, where all the time required to move from one area to another. Welding inverter: additional welding equipment required to operate at a constant surge in the use of electricity generators and industrial Welding cable length. Due to the exceptional stability of the welding current is generated, welding inverters are very easy to work and significantly improve the quality of the weld. In addition, the welding inverters can operate in a wide range of currents under high load. This equipment is equipped with a fuse of the current fluctuations, spikes to the welding electrode, and also – when starting overheating.

Modern Housing and Communal Services

The development of modern housing and communal services, in particular, urban public utilities inextricably linked to good health utility. Timely current maintenance, routine seasonal preparations and the ability to adequately respond to emergency situations – is a guarantee of reliable and effective functioning of the organization providing compliance with all legal and technical requirements for the maintenance and use of housing and under its control area. The requirements are now requirements for similar organizations, forcing them to store and keep Fund update certain spare parts and consumables for the utility. At the same time, the search and selection of strategic partners to manufacture and supply of these components is becoming more informal. The fundamental criteria for choosing the supplying organizations have traditionally been: a range of necessary components, terms and conditions of supply, price. Of particular interest are the company itself producing the necessary equipment. Unlike most dealers, engaged in the resale of banal product companies, manufacturers are able to respond more flexibly to the demands and wishes of the end customer – to make significant changes in technology and manufacturing processes for production of the well-known equipment and tooling, significantly modify it under the customer's needs, and even develop and produce entirely new designs.

It is to such organizations that have their own production facilities include the company "OOO Lukor." The main activity is production and supplies and utilities selling parts and spare parts for municipal vehicles. In addition to the production of such popular components such as pumps for tank-type vacuum machines KO, KO-503 pump, company provides after-sales service of these products, in addition, for ease of exchange fund partners there are parts of municipal equipment, which drastically reduce the time Utilities downtime during their maintenance and repair. For a long time success in the market for municipal engineering firm "LLC Lukor" had a close partnership relationships with many professional societies, is also producing and supplying a similar product range, which allows the company to offer the most favorable terms a wide range of equipment for municipal vehicles, including a power takeoff for vacuum machines KO, product KOM KO-503 KO tank vacuum machines and parts for them. The company "OOO Lukor" is a continuous process of development, improvement and expanding the list of components and spare parts for these types of equipment.

Dome Cameras

These domes are equipped with 2.5-12 mm varifocal lens with auto iris and IR-corrected, and work correctly in the "day / night." They quickly assembled on site without additional brackets. With the new image processor models support the dome of bright illumination, the inversion, an extended dynamic range SSDR, digital noise reduction SSNRIII and other functions. Installation of STC-3520 is allowed and the horizontal and vertical surfaces, with special brackets are required. Choose the direction of the camera allows a 3-axis mounting bracket chamber block, and to adjust the sector surveillance, dome cameras are equipped with Varifocal lens with a focal range of 2.5 to 12 mm. Using DIP-switches on the module in the camera menu you can select the automatic gain control, white balance and other settings that allow optimize the quality of video under light conditions at the facility. To power the dome model STC-3520 uses a source of AC / renamed. current with voltage 12/24 V.

As the sensor chamber STC-3520 ULTIMATE use 1 / 3 "CCD Super HAD CCD II, Sony with a resolution 795h596 pixels. And digital image processing provides DSP-processor Samsung Winner 5 of the last generation. Because of this tandem, the new dome shape with video resolution up to 700 TVL, have improved color and signal / noise ratio 52 dB without increasing the video signal. On the basis of DSP-processor has a function SSDR, which provides the expansion of dynamic range camera, which allows for high detail images under different lighting conditions. Detailed observation of objects in a wide range of illumination provides switchable IR cut filter, which are equipped with dome model Smartec. It toggles "Day / Night" for broadcast color / black and white video with illumination to 0.15 / 0,001 lux. In the case of multiple short-term changes in light levels within the boundary value of dome cameras are able to provide delay switch "day" – "Night" (function Dwell Time), which is exposed when setting up the camera and is 5 to 60 seconds.

Prevent out of focus images when switching modes, "Day / Night" allows regular lens IR-corrected. Improve the quality of video with STC-3520 in low light conditions at the facility allows digital noise reduction function SSNR III. Along with the increase in image quality, eliminating noise contributes to efficient video compression when recording on the DVR, because the noise are additional elements of the image. At the same dome cameras can choose from 32 levels of noise reduction, and savings place in the video archive can be up to 70%. Registration of alarm events is provided by the hardware motion detector camera, which allows you to select up to 8 areas of detection in the frame and to customize each sensitivity. When the activity in any of the 8 regions above the threshold, the dome notifies the operator by displaying the information message display to emphasize its focus, since, carrying out watching videos from multiple cameras, the operator can not always respond quickly to any change in the frame.

Hydraulic Dynamic Tool

Hydraulic dynamic tool – a powerful, reliable, economical and compact assistant for emergency and rescue operations, work in mines, under water, and other construction and special works. – Is closed self-lubricating system, insensitive to dust, water and temperature, which ensures long tool life and greatly reduces the need for technical . dynamic tool is mobile and easy to use. It is safe to work and has a front air – electro – and gasoline-powered tools the following advantages: In comparison with a power tool: Electrical – the lack of sources of stress; Ability to work in conditions of high humidity, as well as under water, low need for maintenance, independence from external power sources, ability to work without long breaks ohlazhdenie.V Compared with gasoline-powered tools: Exception danger of ignition and inhalation of toxic emissions by the operator due to lack of engine and fuel tank directly on the instrument, less weight and noise level – due to lack of engine directly into the instrument, less need for technical obsluzhivanii.V compared with pneumatic tools: Effectiveness and efficiency of a hydraulic plant is 2-3 times more efficient air compressor. It's smaller in size, weight and price, carries the same amount of work as an air compressor, with a much lower cost, reliability and durability: less wear and more long service life of hydraulic system main units, as opposed to pneumatic system by working in a more favorable (in the flow of oil) conditions; Safety operator: air mixture used in pneumatic tools, potentially explosive, that provides increased demands Gosgortechnadzor and may lead to the prohibition of exploitation. Simplicity: the ability to work in conditions of high humidity and contamination over a wide temperature range (with reduced efficiency pneumatic temperature decreases sharply), low noise hydraulic pressure source can operate in urban areas, including in night, high mobility, small size and weight: the whole kit with the pump station is easily moved by hand and placed in the luggage compartment of a car. By the hydraulic station, in contrast to the compressor, can be easily connected to many other tools – pumps, drills, saws, drills, etc.

Heavy Machinery Industry Association

Mining machinery industry maintains steady growth Our country has taken a series of measures to deal with the financial crisis, which can be an umbrella and booster for the mining machinery industry, and leads to the development and growth of a number of mining machinery enterprises. In the current environment, the demand of economic development on energy is more urgent than ever, and the construction and mining equipment market hot climax are also eye-catching. The latest travel statistics show that the profits of the mining machinery industry relatively agencies increase in the first 10 months of 2009, representing an increase of 30.44%, the main business profit margin also increases by 6.17%. China Heavy Machinery Industry Association believes that the international financial crisis have heavy impact on the travel agencies industry, but in support of the policy of stimulating domestic demand, most businesses take a structural adjustment, strengthen the competitiveness of the advantageous industries, and constantly open domestic and foreign markets, which prompt travel agencies industry maintain a rapid, steady growth. With the forthcoming of China s new energy revitalization plan and the adjustment of related development goals, it is expected that by 2020, China s total investment in the field of new energy will over 3 trillion yuan. Investment in the field of new energy will be mainly through market forces, rather than direct government investment.

China s coal-based energy structure determines the construction idea of large coal mines for a long time, and in the fact that the Government has an unprecedented focus on energy efficient environment, building large opencast coal mine will be one of the development directions of China s energy construction. Insiders pointed out that, with the country strengthening the efforts to the construction of the mining resources, hot mine construction market is undoubtedly a good opportunity for mining equipment manufacturers. Chinese mining equipment manufacturers, such as jaw crushers enterprises have also taken measures to fight to share a greater share. Hongxing company specializes in manufacturing ball mill, dryer machine, ore processing equipment, welcome customers to negotiate.

Energy-saving Technology For Housing

Energy-saving technology for housing uzhivutsya How old home and energy efficiency. Increasingly, energy efficiency – the most common topic of conversation, but, in the opinion of most people, this applies only to industrial giants and spacious offices. Why is it customary tenants of apartment buildings? If you look at this issue from another perspective, it becomes clear that the area of housing and communal services – an area where electricity consumption is very large, so that energy-saving technologies must first be entered here. To date, the issue of saving our country is very acute: gryanuvshy crisis will affect the rates, and Most residents will again have to save on everything, paying huge bills, how to remember is not saving and the potential savings? To ensure the operation of electrical appliances in a standard high-rise House spent more than a third of electricity consumed, the rest is spent on heating and hot water. During the construction of modern houses using energy-saving technologies in the past few years. Heating system pays special attention: to save the optimal temperature of air is much heavier than reduce the cost of lighting, which is why the main effort of designers and builders go on then, to be leak proof design. Improving the insulation of the room makes it possible to not install such a powerful heating equipment.

For example, possible to install heaters at area and change the operation of the heating system as a whole. Depending on the type of heating system should consider insulation inside or outside the apartment. The building is heated with gas, to pay special attention to the insulation inside the building and building, heated with water, must be carefully isolated from the outside. If energy efficiency in new homes is used everywhere, then change the situation in an already-built residential fund is very difficult. The vast majority of the houses were built at a time when the word "energy-saving utilities" were little known.

Fitting Studio

Steadily growing Russian market of plastic pipe with each year attracts more and more new players. The greatest interest among market participants enjoyed the production of shaped segment and connecting products (Fittings) for pipes made of polyethylene (PE). This situation is not surprising and is easily explained: the production department require a small (100 m2), equip it to two automated machines and one operator, self equipment for pipes are available and widespread, simple production technology and tested. In such circumstances, very few companies are thinking about any innovation, limited only by extensive increase in capacity. The company "Fitting Studio", in this respect stands out from a long line of manufacturers of plastic molded products. Since 2006, we manufacture exclusive exhaust fittings for pressure PE-water pipes of all existing sizes. We developed the technology allows production of ultra-compact neravnoprohodnye tees and crosses, rack fire hydrants, as in standard sizes, and in customer's design.

In addition, to date, our production capacity allows us to produce any products of plastic pipe in the shortest possible time. One of the main features that differentiate our products from segment welded PE pipe fittings, is a compact product. This factor, in addition to significant savings in raw materials, involves a number of less obvious but no less important benefits. First, the product of LLC "Fitting Studio", which has less mass and volume are cheaper to transport. Second, an exhaust fitting production company "Fitting Studio" can replace several products segment, as it made directly vvarivaniem one tube to another (Fig. 1). Third, the products of our production significantly save storage capacity water supply wells, in which they are located.

Often, only our products can be placed in the well, not only does not extend very well, but not even touching the entrance to it. The next important factor, which fundamentally distinguishes the products of LLC "Fitting Studio" is its high reliability. It is achieved due to the smaller number of compounds in the manufacture of molded products. For example, such a complex product as a stand under the fire hydrant (see Figure 2) is made by us without any transitions with polyethylene metal. This product is less prone to corrosion is obtained, than any similar, represented currently in the market. Note that the seat of fire stands performed in strict compliance standard Russian fire hydrants. Next, note the following feature extractor fitting technology: to make reducing tee, cross or raznoprohodnoy (sm.ris.3) does not use transitions from one diameter to another (which is especially important when a large difference of diameters, for example 710 and 200 mm). This not only helps to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance products, but also at times to increase stability fitting to the vertical and horizontal accelerations, possible in the course of its operation, and each product is released from dependence on rare or nonexistent at all fittings.

Technology Production

In China alone in 2006 were about 200 of these plants producing 300 tonnes / year. Most major automobile manufacturers in Europe, Asia and America each year are used in cars produced several hundred thousand tons of precision castings, obtained as described way. General Motors, Ford Motors, BMW, Fiat, VW, Renualt and several other companies have gone over in 1980-90 years to produce this method of casting engine blocks, heads, block, intake and exhaust manifolds, crankshafts for the most popular types of engines. In Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys (FTIMS) NAS (Department of forming under the leadership of Professor Shinsky OI) equipment designed and launched a number of sites in Russia and Ukraine, introduced a equipment in Poland and Vietnam. At the pilot plant in Kiev FTIMS pour ferrous and nonferrous metals weighing 0,1-1500 kg to 50 tons / month, work out the technology and tooling for new plants, design and equipment lines for the program casting plant and the area of the customer, who then supply foundry enterprises with commissioning the full range of equipment and the introduction of technology into production.

Production potential of the technology is far from LGM exhausted. It also allows low-tech alloy previously coarsely, mesh and frame molding, pouring not only metals and alloys, and composites, and reinforced to receive designs that have improved characteristics. In the model pre-inserted into different parts or materials that form a composite or reinforced construction, and the imposition of the gas pressure in the liquid metal increases the stability impregnation of such products with inserts on the length of 1 m. LGM attributed to high-tech industries, which provide access to the sustainable development of the technological gap, as in the domestic economy is growing raw materials component, which is dominated by products with low added value and reduced the competitiveness of production. If in 80 years in the structure of the domestic industry and export commodity weight machine was About 30 … 40%, and iron and steel was two to three times less, but now the opposite.

It is the development of foundry – a step toward recovery and growth of the domestic machine-building, turning the country of the seller semi-finished products in the exporting technology products with high added value. Reduced dependency on domestic industries from import ideas, technologies and products, implementing its own program innovative development will enable us to become an equal participant in global innovation processes. Download other articles on FF (Fresh articles other authors: 1) Rybakov SA Innovative features cast on gasified models, the state and prospects of this method in Russia / / Russian foundry. 4, 2009, sec. 44-45. 2) Rozhnov SP, Anderson, VA A new concept of small-scale foundry / / Foundry. 9, 2010, sec. 27-30).

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