North Americans

The accident with the R-16 rocket brought some consequences to the Soviet space program. One of them was that Mikhail Yangel, its designer, lost part of its prestige. Before the accident it defied engineer Sergei Korolev and had great possibilities of that he finished for appearing as the designer-head of the Soviet space program. If such happened History would be different, therefore some of the great advances of the Soviets in if treating to developments in the Astronautics had left the brain of Korolev, as the Sputnik satellites and the ships Vostok, Voskhod and the Soyuz. But with the accident, Yangel was assigned for tasks of little brightness, as to give continuity to the R-16 rocket that, in little time, was surpassed by projects of more powerful rockets of Korolev (ZAK, 2010). Other accidents involving not-manned space vehicles that, still thus, had exerted deep influences on the history of the space exploration had been the explosions of the archetypes of the Russian rocket N-1, in the end of the decade of 1960 and beginning of the following decade. This was the most powerful rocket constructed for the man and in height (111 meters) it rivaled with Saturn American north.

However, all the archetypes of the N-1 that had been constructed had finished blowing up in the launching. The rocket only served to produce the biggest explosions of the history of the Astronautics and at least one of them it provoked fatal victims in the ground, even so its number is unknown until today of the press occidental person (WHITE, 2003). With the failure of the N-1 rockets the Soviets had lost any possibility to arrive at the Moon before the North Americans, a time who never would obtain to produce another rocket in time so powerful. The accident that finished in the death it cosmonaut Valentin Bondarenko in 1961, even so has occurred during a space flight, happened during the tests for a manned mission, in way whom it appears in this article, beyond the fact the same to have left consequncias that had affected the manned space flights in the Soviet Union.

Reserve National City

Carnaubeira of the Penha was formed of a small pertaining community to the City of Forest. As the activities of the first settlers they were based on the subsistence agriculture, where if it cultivated beans, cotton, maize, rice, cassava and potato-candy, agriculture and the cattle one were the main economic activities, being distinguished the bovine and goat flocks. Its population is formed by whites, caboclos and indians. A small population of blacks in the Mountain range of the Arapu meets.

The population of the Mountain range of One is formed mainly by indians, where if she finds the Reserve National of the Atikum indians. The origin of the Carnaubeira name was for existing a great amount of Carnabas in the region, at the beginning of its povoamento. Click Mitchel Resnick for additional related pages. Penha was in homage Ours Lady of the Penha, the chosen one as its padroeira, being with the name of the Carnaubeira city of the Penha. District created with the denomination of Carnaubeira, for the municipal law n 2, of 19-01-1948, created with lands of the extinct district of Bar of Silva, subordinated to the city of Forest. In dated territorial division of 1-VII-1960, the district of Carnaubeira, appears in the city of Forest. Thus remaining in dated territorial division of 18-VIII-1988. Raised to the category of city with the denomination of Carnaubeira of the Penha, for the state law n 10626, of 01-10-1991, desmembrado of Forest. Headquarters in the old district of Carnaubeira, current Carnaubeira of the Penha.


In Brazil, the curricular reformularizations have followed external models, especially of France, for the education of History. Such reforms had been initiated in the decade of 80 with the process of redemocratizao of the country, pautadas in the formation politics, directed toward the popular layers. To take care of new estimated the educational ones, the MEC promoted the curricular reforms in all the escolarizao levels. They had been elaborated National Curricular parameters (PCN) for Basic and Average education, under a deriving international orientation of estimated of piagetiana psychology and the Construtivista Trend. Other boarded points for the author are the Conceptions of pertaining to school contents and learning. In Brazil, in the decade of 80 such subject divided the educators worried about the curricular reformularizations.

Of a side it had the defenders of ' ' pedagogia of contedos' '. In opposition to this conteudista line, the defenders of ' ' education popular' ' , based in Pablo Freire. In this context they appear colon of quarrel for the educational politics: criteria of election of contents and the relation teach-learning, the Methods and the new technologies proposals in the renewals of the current resumes. According to Bittencourt, to take care of the new educational demands the curricular proposals of History for the basic education beyond the PCN had been created, which approach characteristics and others in common you specify for each level of education. For the final series of basic education one searchs to point out the current period of training of the historiogrfica production, the concepts are considered base for the historical knowledge, must have coherence enters the objectives of disciplines and the historiogrficos and pedagogical beddings, it has the concern with the concept of sociocultural history. The election of contents is based on thematic axles or generating subjects. To finish its quarrel Bittencourt Maria, it comments on the objectives and subjects for the study of History.


The end of the memory? Eugenia Meyer the text ' ' The end of memria' ' of author Eugenia Meyer, it causes the use of the orality the construction of history, its research consists of the accomplishment of recorded interviews with people who can testify on events passed to the construction of the facts. The author discloses one of the points that the historian is allowed to use in the captation of data: ' ' the necessary historian of imagination and inventividade; in case that contrary, he will be before same looser to start cruzada' ' (MEYER, Eugenia. 2009: p. 33). That is, it is a work that requires astuteness, to dribble some ' ' truths escondidas' ' , that many times are encubadas, scratched out, forgotten, with intention to confuse or to spot part of the history, that in many times these ' ' truths escondidas' ' if to arrive tona they are inconvenient in the construction of some ideologies.

The text describes a little of the life of the author in its battle to portray history through its experiences of work, after rambling with the recorder in the hand, listening, to inquire, to ask, to question and to look for to know of yes same felt which the true one of the historical task. That is, the author starts to prove a bit of the proper poison. She was from the decade of 60 and principles of the decade of 70, that she started to plan and to scheme how could formulate a project of rescue of certifications right-handers of the old revolutionaries from the methodology of verbal history. Its stories leave the enormous importance clearly to consider, to respect, and to learn other forms to think and to act, valuing each one of that individual that had shared its past. In its trajectory to tell the facts, a doctor knew and if he compromised in reconstructing its history of life.

Agrarian Reformation

We believe that the necessary school to help to take root the people in its culture: that it can be transformed, recriada from the interaction with other cultures, but that needs to be conserved; because nor she is possible to make formation human being without working with roots and bonds; because without identifying roots she does not have as to have projects. This wants to say that the necessary school to work with the memory of the group and its cultural roots; this wants to also say that if it must have a specific scienter in the resistance to the imposition of foreign cultural standards, in the combat to the cultural domination and in the critical reconstruction of its proper traditions cultural. (CALDART) Caldart in the alert one on the perigos of the imposition of foreign cultural standards. How the elaborated resume if compromises to the work of the memory of this group and to its cultural roots? How the pedagogical materials deal with the identity of the seated one? Which the place of the Agrarian Reformation in the Resume of the School Advising Antonio? How the school of this nesting collaborates with the enraizamento of the people seated in its culture? Of that it forms the pedagogical materials they argue the question of the Agrarian Reformation? The school, therefore, must search to modernize itself on the meanings that imply to educate the man and the woman of it /em the field. We understand the importance of the permanence of the campesinos in the field, but for in such a way if it becomes indispensable that public politics are created and accomplished, in the direction to propitiate to these rurcolas a suffered life, more quality in its existence less.

Great Waterfall

The navigation in the river became dificultosa from the waterfalls that started to empear the river, of Alcobaa for top, and is called: 1 Tapaiunacura: 2 Guariba: 3 Life the perpetual a 4 Tucumanduba: 5 Uerapepoaquima: 6 Cunau: 7 Pitaoca: 8 Chiqueiro: 9 Hell: 10 Puncture of the Itaboca or Arrependido: 11 Tortinho: 12, Jose Correa: 13 Great Waterfall: 14 Apinag: 15 Cajueiro a16 Capelinha: 17 Valentim: 18 Mandupixuna: l9 Puraquecuara: 20 High Beach: 21 Big hole of the Tauiri: 22 Dry Great: 23 Defuntinha: 24 Tauirizinho: 25 Mother Maria: 26 Broken Mountain range: 27 Dry of the Curu: which is the common limit of Par and Gois. Being the most difficult waterfall of the Hell and the puncture of the Itaboca. The rapids enters them rock pillars forced to the canoeiros to search the edges in accordance with to push and to pull the canoe with pitchforks, calls of oxen, being the exerted work the position of the member of the crew gained with the service time: pilot, proeiro, against-proeiro and remeiro. To each vanquished difficulty this crew commemorated for then following trip. Another difficulty of these trips would be the illnesses as the diarrias with blood, the malaria, maleita or impaludismo that would be dealt with by the proper members of the crew through cataplasmas with the pulp to fruits and beberagens made with known medicinal grass the messengers. The overcoming of these difficulties was mainly related the search of the chestnut, cacao and rubber that would be vendida to the merchants and taken the Belm. The exploration of these products, that had one high commercial value stimulated the messengers if more to risk each time in waterfalls of the Tocantins, becoming plus a cross fincada in the edges to remember the unfortunate person who died in waterfalls. Figure 8: Opening of roads for the Tocantins railroad the navigation that was the media and the economic activity them marginal populations in ends it century XIX assists would earn it of the railroad Tocantins, projected to cross the encachoeirado stretch and I number to reduce it of dead of the navigation, facilitating the draining of the products of the region.

Nationalistic Liga

moral values of the population. The new demands and social actors who appear in the country in decade of 1920, as affirm NAGLE (2000), have as objective central office to fight the illiteracy, the vices of the elite politics and to diminish the foreign influence, mainly, in the south of the country. The used form to carry through this task was the creation of nationalistic groups. Groups as Liga de National Defesa and Nationalistic Liga of So Paulo are examples of as the nationalistic ideas had penetrated in the Brazilian society of the time. The Leagues had as objective tracings in its programs and manifestos: the defense of> Revolution of 1930, can be characterized as great attempt of critical rupture and to the model adopted from 1889 and consequently of if launching the bases of a project that added some of the proposals of the nationalistic movement.

This event is appraised as a process that determined the end of the hegemony of a parcel of the coffee bourgeoisie who dominated throughout the Old Republic the scene Brazilian politician, that is, the So Paulo parcel. This movement had as central focus, critical to the electoral process of 1930, adding it the crisis lived for the world-wide economy, mainly, for the effect of this crisis in the economy of the country based on the exportation of its product of bigger value of the market> the International: coffee (FAUSTO; 1986). In the LAMOUNIER analysis (1985), the model of State adopted in Brazil, after 1930, had as first politics the workmanship of a series of intellectuals who had elaborated a set of critical to the role played for the State, during the First call Republic. Between these intellectuals, the author cites: Alberto Towers, Oliveira Viana, Francisco Fields, Azevedo Amaral, Salty Pliny, among others. The question that approached the speech of this group inhabited in the fact of all to be fit in what the author calls of authoritarian thought.

Having Direction

Having as objective main to join arts, produzirartesanato and technology and to reorganize the concepts architectural of the time. Tendocomo concepts the valuation of the machine and the functional rationalism, the Bauhaus, would be of fort and absolute influence to the associated concept the Design Grficovigente. Its basement not only in its proper specialties and theories, comotambm the miscegenation of ideologies of diverse movements as Of Stijl and the oConstrutivismo, had brought the school the concept of flexibility and innovation. seupioneirismo in establishing a new pedagogical concept, that defended radical amodernizao of the life in racionalistas bases, was revolutionary napoca. (DESIGN BRAZIL, 2009) In its fourteen years deexistncia, the School of Bauhaus passed for three different stages: the faseexpressionista (1919 – 1927) in Weimar, under the direction of Walter Gropius, the fasedo construtivista formalism (1927 – 1929) with Hannes Meyer in Dessau and, finally, the phase of the radical rationalism with emphasis in the production architectural (1929 – 1933), under the direction of Mies van to give Rohe, part in Dessau and part emBerlim. (DESIGN BRAZIL, 2009) Having its directed projects it stops the beginning of the rationality, dasimplificao and of the unit between form and function, in order to facilitate to the produoindustrial, taking care of the necessities of the society German.

((MAKKAN, 2009) graphical Odesign in itself, in turn, had as bigger influence construtivistLsl Moholy-Nagy, that defined the typography as a communication tool, that never must have its legibility compromised in function of the aesthetic one, communicating in its more intense and ample form. The passion deMoholy-Nagy for typography and photograph had inspired to an interest of the Bauhausna visual communication that took the important experiments in the unification dessasduas arts. It saw design graphical, mainly the poster, if they desenvolvendoem direction to typophoto. It called this objective integration the word eimagem in order to communicate a message new visual literature.

Brazil Coconut

The group possesss umahistria that was kept in the memory of the brincantes, and that it would possivelmenteestaria predestinate to the esquecimento. Through interviews with participants of the Samba of Coconut, it was possible to identify that the sociocultural time and advances had not shaken aseriedade of the group, exactly with the entrance of new brincantes in the wheel of the Coco.Como in the current formation possess three participants who were part of the aindano dance Town Coconut palm, exist have concern to keep its originalidade. The changes that had occurred in the continuity of the group, justify the action of the time. Before they played the Coconut after a jornadade work, in the junino period or some commemorative date of some living dacomunidade. Today the group if presents in some states of Brazil. In its indumentria, it had changes, each component dogrupo possesss its standardized clothes.

Old, it did not have clothes standard, osbrincantes they danced with the clothes that was. The eramconfeccionados instruments of rudimentary form and today the instruments are same, but the deformed one industrialized. The original instruments exist, but they are in the deOlmpia Museum in So Paulo. ' ' The objective and the characteristic of ' ' tradies' ' , also of the invented ones, it is the invariability. The passadoreal or forged the one that they mention themselves imposes practical fixed (normalmenteformalizadas), such as the repetition.

' ' custom in the sociedadestradicionais, has the double function of engine and projection. Epode does not hinder the innovations to move until certain point, even so evidently either hindered for the requirement deck must seem compatible or identical to precedente' ' 4 the question of the tradition is present in the head dosparticipantes of the Samba of Coconut. In analysis, it was observed that the importance dogrupo is in full activity, was of the ability of the Association that deuseguimento the preservation of the group.

The Germans

The action was fast and necessary, leaving the Polish forces without conditions to resist. Ahead of the unexpected attack, the Polish generals had not had time to plan one against attack, without counting that the German forces were in bigger number. After more than twenty days of the beginning of the invasion, the Polish commanders they signed the surrender. The Poland left to exist as Been independent. He was considered an attached territory to Germany, whose inhabitants would have simply to work for the Germans.

From there in ahead, it was initiated superexprorao of man power of Jewish, Polish workers and other etnias. The famous concentration camps were also born, where Jewish and opposing of the nazistas they were interned. Later, it was applied politics of ' ' solution final' ' , that is, the pure and simple elimination of the Jews. (TOTA, 2007, P. 364) After the conquest of the Poland, Hitler advanced on the Denmark and the Norway (great steel producer, raw material essential to support the machine of nazista war), finally to turn itself against the occidental powers.

1.3 The INVASION OF FRANCE to attack France, Hitler needed to exceed an extensive line of blockhouses, with armories, underground deposits, railway lines hardwired and shelters for the army, that it was in the border between the two countries, the Maginot Line. The blockhouse would protect the Frenchmen of possible attacks or at least it would give time to the army to prepare its strategy of defense. The task would be very difficult and the German forces would be very consumed for a war with England. Here it is that the Plan Manstein, a copy of the famous Schlieffen Plan appears, that consisted of attacking France for the north, invading Belgium and dominating the coast French to isolate the France of England. The Germans, following the Manstein Plan, had come skirting the Maginot line, penetrating in the region forests of the Ardenas, where the nineth army, inferior to excessively if had fixed to protect the region.

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